Home Science The 5 Unknown facts about outer space people barely know

The 5 Unknown facts about outer space people barely know

by Sangam Adhikari

1. The Earth is slowly drifting away from the sun.

  • Tidal acceleration is an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite and the primary object that it orbits . The acceleration causes a gradual recession of a satellite in a prograde orbit away from the primary, and a corresponding slowdown of the primary’s rotation.
  • The process eventually leads to tidal locking, usually of the smaller first, and later the larger body. The Earth–Moon system is the best studied case where this process is driving the moon’s orbit outward: Tides raised by the moon in our oceans are gradually transferring Earth’s rotational energy to lunar motion. As a consequence, each year the moon’s orbit expands by about 4 cm and Earth’s rotation slows by 0.000017 second.
  • Russian dynamicists Gregoriy A. Krasinsky and Victor A. Brumberg to calculated in 2004, that the sun and Earth are gradually moving apart. The sun and Earth are literally pushing each other away due to their tidal interaction. Earth’s mass is raising a tiny but sustained tidal bulge in the sun.
  • This and the expansion of space at 75 km per second per megaparsec will move Earth’s orbit 40–50 million miles farther from the Sun by the time the Sun turns into a red giant.
  • This causes the sun’s rotation rate to slow by 3 milliseconds per century (0.00003 second per year). The distance between the Earth and sun is growing 15 cm per year because the sun is losing its angular momentum. [1]

2. The expansion of the observable universe across the entire diameter is expanding at 7.05 (+/-2.33) times the speed of light.

  • Diameter of the universe 93,000,000,000 LY
  • Megaparsec 3,300,000 LY expands at mean rate of 75 kms
  • ((Universe Diameter / Megaparsec =28,182) x (50–100 kps ..mean 75 kps) ) =2,113,636 kps or 7.05 x the speed of light.
  • This means the universe expands 0.0000000000000000000008 % every earth year.
  • Speed may be the wrong term to use here as it is really the expansion of space itself. Space is measurably getting bigger over time and that can be quantified with a speed if that is the cumulative rate of change of length for all points in space combined between two points being measured. It is an illusion of speed, however, speed none the less defines the rate of change well for any given period of time between two points.

3. The vacuum of space is not empty at all. 

Interstellar space has anywhere from 100,000 molecules per cubic meter to 1 billion molecules per cubic meter. The average between stars is estimated to be 1,800,000 molecules per cubic meter.

If a human was travelling at half the speed of light, the gamma rays from impacting these molecules at that speed would be fatal in minutes. As you approach 99.999% the speed of light the energy being released from these impacts is equal to a gigawatt per square meter of a space ships surface that is facing the direction of travel. This also produces significant drag once you’re near 9/10th the speed of light.

4. Some of the red dwarfs shining today will still be shining when the universe is nearly a 1000 x older than it is right now.

Our sun will only live to be 10–15 billion years old while other stars will live much longer. Red dwarfs can live for over 10 trillion years.

5. In about 800 million years the sun’s solar output will increase by 10% as it moves down the standard sequence timeline, this is normal and expected. Starting as that increase becomes significant, all forms of animal and plant life will start to die and around 1 billion years from now only microbes will be left from the heat of our dying sun.

  • The earth is actually starting its golden years, its not a juvenile or even an adult … it’s a full fledged AARP member looking towards the sunset of its life.
  • Shortly after that in cosmic time (5 billion years), if the sun doesn’t swell enough to swallow the earth. The earth is likely to drift off on its own as our dying sun sheds its bloated mass close to its end.
  • The sun is past it’s midlife and will now continue to burn hotter and brighter year over as it ascends it’s final life curve in its main sequence.. This is a stage before it turns into a red giant and while it is still a normal star. the suns intensity will go up by 67% before it turns to a red giant. That is what will kill us long before the sun starts to grow massively. ”For a given star such as the Sun, the brightness can change considerably during its lifetime. While the Sun and planets were forming the Sun was probably 100 to 200 times brighter than now. During the first billion years of its Main-Sequence lifetime it was probably only about 2/3 as bright as now. Towards the end of its Main-Sequence lifetime it will be over 50% brighter than now, and as it swells up to become a red giant it may become larger than the orbit of the Earth and over 1000 times brighter than now. After it ends its Red Giant phase it will shrink to become a white dwarf, 1000 to 10000 times fainter than now. or about 40 times brighter than a full moon.” [3] Now what might help a bit is that the Earth will be about 12 million kilometers farther from the sun in a billion years.
  • The earth, cold, dark, lifeless, stripped of all water and atmosphere, floating alone … the echo of everything we once were. Drifting endlessly and going nowhere for trillions upon trillions of years. The essence of every experience the substance of everything you ever touched or that touched you will be there with it. The glory that was our earth and all the life in it, everyone you ever knew will still be there. Ashes to ashes, dust to dust, our world a lost soul forever in a sea of darkness.

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